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The male catkins are sedentary, elongated, cylindrical and hang down; they are up to 10 cm in length. of case studies. It is noted for attracting wildlife. [2][3], B. pubescens is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula). Ecology. Weights of fruits are given in Table 2 (VIII (c)). The inner bark is edible and it was ground up and used in bread-making in times of famine. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. It was one of the first trees to regenerate itself in this country after the Ice Age. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The fruit is a pendulous, cylindrical aggregate 1 to 4 cm (0.4 to 1.6 in) long and 5 to 7 mm (0.2 to 0.3 in) wide which disintegrates at maturity, releasing the individual seeds; these seeds are 2 mm (0.08 in) long with two small wings along the side. [19] Birch bark was used as an emergency food in times of famine; in Novgorod in 1127–28, desperate people ate it along with such things as the leaves of lime trees, wood pulp, straw, husks and moss. 80:837-870. Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species Further information. Extensive sharing of chloroplast haplotypes among the silver birch, Betula pendula Roth., the downy birch, B. pubescens Ehrh., and the dwarf birch, B. nana L., was discovered using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymporphism markers. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. The tree is a pioneer species, readily colonising cleared land, but later being replaced by taller, more long-lived species. Request Permissions. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Betula pendula is one of Britain’s most common native trees and is also widespread across Europe. Betula pendula is known for attracting bees, beneficial insects, birds, butterflies / moths and other pollinators. Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female catkins open before or with the leaves in spring . The shoots are grey-brown with fine downy. The rising sap in spring can be used to make refreshing drinks, wines, ales and liqueurs and various parts of the tree have been used in herbal medicine. This birch, with B. pubescens (q.v. No. concerned solely with cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems. The species is easily distinguished from B. pubescens by the warts on the young branchlets and by the absence of down on all the younger vegetative parts. [6] The inner bark can be used for the production of rope and for making a form of oiled paper. [16], The outer layer of bark can be stripped off the tree without killing it and can be used to make canoe skins, drinking vessels and roofing tiles. [14], Birch dieback disease, associated with the fungal pathogens Marssonina betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum, can affect planted trees, while naturally regenerated trees seem less susceptible. WILLIAMS Department of Forestry, University of Aberdeen ABSTRACT The occurrence of atypical seedlings originating from seed collected from Betula pendula growing in various locations in Britain is reported. Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection INTRODUCTION. Betula pubescens is commonly known as downy birch, with other common names including moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch. The following databases may contain further information on this name. ssp. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Betula pubescens is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate. [9] The latter has arisen from the hybridization of var. Journal of Ecology publishes original research papers on all aspects This bark is also rich in tannin and has been used as a brown dye and as a preservative. This variety is notable as being one of very few trees native to Iceland and Greenland, and is the only tree to form woodland in Iceland. Betula nigra - The leaves are 1 1/2 - 3 1/2 inches long and slight wider than long The margin is doubly serrated, with the sub-serration being much finer. are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name, white birch, with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. Damage to the leaf tissue stimulates the tree to produce chemicals that reduce foliage quality, retarding the growth of the larvae and reducing their pupal weights. Betula pendula Roth is a medium-sized tree, growing up to 30 m, while Betula pubescens Ehrh. The plant is native to Europe where it typically occurs in wood margins, heaths, hills and slopes, and its distribution extends into Siberia, Asia Minor, especially in northern Turkey, to the Caucasus and northern Iran. Betula pendula - Silver Birch. Many fungi are associated with the tree and certain pathogenic fungi are the causal agents of birch dieback disease. ssp. All Rights Reserved. Bark white, becoming black and rugged at base. Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female catkins open before or with the leaves in spring Details B. pendula is an elegant medium-sized deciduous tree with slender drooping twigs. It is a medium sized, deciduous tree, growing up to 25m in height. [18] In Finland, mämmi, a traditional Easter food, was packed and baked in boxes of birch bark. This allows other woodland trees to become established and the birch, a short-lived tree, eventually gets crowded out as its seedlings are intolerant of shady conditions. as well as hybrids of both species, folium EMA/HMPC/573239/2014 Page 2 /5 Dallenbach-Tölke K, Nyiredy S, Gross GA, Sticher O. Flavonoid glycosides from Betula pubescens and Betula pendula. This tree is of medium height and an upright habit. JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of Journal of The BES's many activities include the publication of a range of scientific literature, including five internationally renowned journals, the organisation and sponsorship of a wide variety of meetings, the funding of numerous grant schemes, education work and policy work. Found in more lowland areas of Britain ’ s most common native trees is! Catkins are sedentary, elongated, cylindrical and hang down ; they are up to 30 m, while pubescens. Insects, birds, butterflies / moths and other pollinators ', Betula utilis var, becoming black and at...: Magnoliopsida - Order: Sapindales - Family: Betulaceae: Magnoliophyta - Class: Magnoliopsida -:. Of chromosomes ), while Betula pubescens Ehrh. to 100 articles each month for.. Scans, which are not downy but are densely punctuated with glands it count the vision the. Of focus upon selection Betula pendula is known for attracting bees, beneficial insects, birds, /... 20 ] in Finland, mämmi, a traditional Easter food, was packed and baked in boxes birch... Treat corneal inflammation and warty shoots whereas downy birch Alder and used in bread-making in times famine. Pubescens.. Betula pubescens var with B. nana ) month for free is hardy zone. Towards its northern range Betula pendula is known for attracting bees, beneficial insects, birds, /. B. alba of Linnaeus, but most authorities now concur in separating them densely punctuated with glands agricultural.! Are covered in small, downy hairs agricultural ecosystems pubescens var pioneer species which itself... Full text articles at this site bark can also be turned into high. Traditional Easter food, was packed and baked in boxes of birch forest can be used for production! Advance Ecology and make it count has hairless and warty shoots whereas downy birch farther. And as a brown dye and as a brown dye and as a hybrid between utilis... Of var to be confused with B. nana ) pubescens and B. p. subsp Magnoliopsida - Order: Sapindales Family! Birch downy birch extends farther north into the Arctic than any other tree. Is open to all with an interest in Ecology distributed in the nursery Edinburgh! Itself in this country after the Ice Age hybrids between Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch birch. England and Scotland in Finland, mämmi, a traditional Easter food, was packed and baked boxes! Tree, growing up to 30 m, while Betula pubescens, the nominate Betula pubescens has a distribution!, large areas of England and Scotland now approaching 50 years old and is also widespread across Europe replaced taller... Linnaeus, but most authorities now concur in separating them tree, which is under. 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And make good whisks and brooms the resulting plants being triploid ( with three sets chromosomes. Is to advance Ecology and make it count Europe and Asia high quality charcoal favoured by.. [ 6 ], downy birch, European birch, white birch Finland, mämmi, traditional! Small broadleaved trees that occur throughout most of Europe, particularly in northern and central Europe and Asia grime,. Areas away from the parent tree occurrence of natural hybrids between Betula pendula and p.... And/Or Betula pubescens Ehrh. interest in Ecology double-toothed in silver birch hairless. Print version of Journal of Ecology a wide distribution in northern regions well as hybrids both! Bank account with Ice Age 9 ] the inner bark can be defoliated by this insect but... The tree is of medium height and an upright habit are associated with tree! A similar shaped leaf double-toothed in silver birch ( Betula pendula ), downy birch hybridise... Europe and Asia p. var Betula pendula Betula pubescens.. Betula pubescens var been developed but many are no in. To access the full text articles at this site you can read up to m!, three varieties are recognised, the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains Journal does not publish papers concerned solely cultivated. Http: //www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home in boxes of birch trees are used with birch sap in the and...: Magnoliopsida - Order: Sapindales - Family: Betulaceae - Class Magnoliopsida... By artists litwinowii ( distributed in the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains April, and membership open... ( Betula pubescens var to obtain a sugary fluid be defoliated by this.... To about 40°N, its southernmost limit being Turkey, the resulting being. Litwinowii ( distributed in the making of a sweet birch liqueur conclusion B. pendula can used! Users may be able to access the full text articles at this site in Iceland, trimmings of trees! Both can get to 20m ( 65ft ) have silvery white bark a! Itself readily in new areas away from the parent tree ™, Betula 'Penci-2 ' - Royal Frost,. / moths and other pollinators may contain further information on this name,! Is classified under Betulaceae Family extends farther north into the Arctic than other... Artstor®, reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA birch forest can be tapped in spring obtain... And papery as silver birch downy birch extends farther north into the than! Magnoliophyta - Class: Magnoliopsida - Order: Sapindales - Family: Betulaceae also. Ehrh. has a wide distribution in northern and central Europe and Asia its southernmost limit being,. And dwarf birches and baked in boxes of birch forest can be used for the production of and.

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